In the world of investing, Charlie Munger is a legendary figure, celebrated for his sage-like wisdom and insightful aphorisms. As Warren Buffet’s right-hand man, his approach is a testament to the power of effective decision-making and wisdom, which he famously accredits to his ‘multi-disciplinary’ approach—a rich mosaic of insights from various academic disciplines, including applied, organisational, and social psychology.

Munger’s perspective is unique and practical because he harnesses these theories and translates them into real-world applications. His approach forms an interesting amalgamation, merging business acumen with psychological theories—a powerful combination that leads to meaningful, insightful, and profitable decisions.

The power of incentives: An intersection of economics and psychology

Munger emphasises the importance of incentives, an intersection of economics and psychology, in shaping human behaviour. “Show me the incentive, and I will show you the outcome,” he famously said. In applied psychology, the operant conditioning theory by B.F. Skinner aligns with Munger’s philosophy. It suggests that behaviour is learned and maintained through immediate consequences or rewards. In organisations, this theory’s implications are vast. By understanding the impact of incentives—be it financial, social, or psychological—leaders can drive behaviour that aligns with the company’s strategic objectives.

Cognitive biases and decision making: A Mungerian perspective

In his famed address to Harvard University in 1995, Munger laid out 25 standard causes of human misjudgement—a compendium of cognitive biases that he believes significantly impacts decision-making. These biases are psychological tendencies that can cloud our judgment and influence our decision-making processes. They include confirmation bias (favouring information that confirms our pre-existing beliefs), social proof (the tendency to see an action as more appropriate when others are doing it), and availability bias (relying on immediate examples that come to mind when evaluating a specific topic or decision), among others.

In addition, Munger also discussed biases such as over-optimism, anchoring, and the contrast effect, highlighting how these can distort our understanding of reality and lead to erroneous decisions.

In the field of organisational psychology, these cognitive biases are recognised as significant barriers to rational decision-making. They create an environment susceptible to phenomena such as groupthink, where a desire for harmony or conformity in the group results in an irrational or dysfunctional decision-making outcome. These biases can also engender substantial resistance to change, as individuals often favour the familiar and view potential changes with a degree of scepticism and fear.

To mitigate the effects of these cognitive biases, Munger emphasised the importance of cultivating cognitive flexibility and self-awareness in our thinking patterns. Cognitive flexibility involves shifting our thinking and using different thinking strategies in different scenarios. On the other hand, self-awareness is the conscious knowledge of one’s character, feelings, motives, and desires. By being aware of our biases, we can better question our initial judgments and decisions and consider alternatives.

Munger also advocates for the idea of using mental models, drawing from a variety of disciplines, to aid in decision-making. This multidisciplinary approach to thinking helps counteract the narrow-mindedness that can result from over-reliance on a single perspective and encourages a more comprehensive understanding of problems, ultimately leading to better decision-making.

Harnessing social influence: Understanding the psychology of persuasion

Munger often references Robert Cialdini’s principles of persuasion—reciprocity, commitment and consistency, social proof, authority, liking, and scarcity. He asserts that these principles don’t just operate on an individual level but can significantly influence organisational culture and drive business outcomes.

For instance, the principle of commitment and consistency can improve organisational efficiency. When employees commit to a task or goal, they are more likely to follow through. Similarly, the principle of social proof plays a role in shaping corporate cultures. People tend to conform to the behaviours of the majority, which can either drive productive work ethics or create a toxic environment.

Navigating the latticework of mental models

Munger advocates for the latticework of mental models, suggesting that one must understand various disciplines to make effective decisions. This is where the role of interdisciplinary knowledge, specifically a blend of applied, organisational, and social psychology, becomes paramount.

One of the key insights of this approach is the understanding that organisations are not just economic entities but psychological and social entities as well. Leaders who appreciate this complexity are more equipped to drive their organisations towards sustainable success.

Conclusion: The intersection of wisdom and psychology

Munger’s wisdom, grounded in various psychological theories, provides a robust framework for understanding and influencing human behaviour in organisations. By weaving together insights from applied, organisational, and social psychology, he teaches us that wisdom is not just about knowledge but also about understanding human nature and leveraging it for collective progress. His philosophies echo the timeless essence of these psychological theories, reminding us that at the heart of every organisation, the human element counts the most.


As the world continues to evolve, so does the way we use technology to improve our lives and workplaces. New York City recently adopted final regulations on the use of AI in hiring and promotion processes marking a significant step in addressing potential biases and ethical concerns surrounding the use of AI in the workplace. The question now is, will other countries follow suit and implement similar regulations?

As AI increasingly moves from automating drudge work to playing a more prominent role in decision-making, it’s vital that we understand the implications and potential risks. The good news is that some countries have already started to take action in this area.

Global progress on regulations

The European Union, for instance, unveiled its proposed AI regulations in April 2021. While these regulations are still in the proposal stage, they represent a comprehensive approach to governing AI use across various sectors, including hiring and promotions. The EU’s proposed rules are designed to ensure that AI systems are transparent, accountable, and respect fundamental rights.

Japan, another key player in AI development, established the AI Technology Strategy Council in 2016. The Council has since released a series of strategic guidelines that consider the ethical, legal, and social issues surrounding AI use. While these guidelines are not legally binding, they provide a framework for companies and the Japanese government to consider as they develop AI systems and technologies.

Ethical challenges

In contrast, countries like China and Russia have prioritised developing and deploying AI for economic and strategic gains, with less emphasis on ethical considerations. However, as AI becomes more integrated into hiring and promotion processes globally, it’s likely that these countries will also have to address the ethical challenges presented by AI.

So, what are the chances of the NYC regulations being successful? It largely depends on how well they are enforced and how willing companies are to adapt their practices. One of the keys to success will be educating employers about the benefits of ethical AI use and the potential risks of non-compliance.

Biases and discrimination

The impact of AI in hiring and promotion goes far beyond automating menial tasks. By leveraging AI’s ability to analyse vast amounts of data, we can make better, more informed decisions in these areas. However, this also raises the risk of perpetuating biases and discrimination.
As we’ve seen in recent years, AI algorithms can sometimes unintentionally reinforce existing biases due to the data they’re trained on. By implementing regulations like those in NYC, we can help ensure that AI is used responsibly and that it truly serves to benefit all members of society.

The key takeaway is that while the use of AI in hiring and promotion can be hugely beneficial, it’s essential to have regulations in place to ensure ethical practices. As New York City has taken this bold step, we’ll see more countries and cities follow in their footsteps.


In conclusion, the adoption of AI regulations in New York City is a significant move towards ensuring the responsible and ethical use of AI in hiring and promotion processes. As AI continues to play an increasingly important role in our lives, it’s crucial that governments and businesses alike prioritise transparency, accountability, and the protection of fundamental rights. By doing so, we can harness the power of AI to create a fairer, more inclusive society – and that’s something worth celebrating.

So, will other countries follow New York City’s lead? I believe they will, and it’s only a matter of time before AI regulations become a global norm. Let’s keep the conversation going, stay informed, and make the best decisions.