In the world of investing, Charlie Munger is a legendary figure, celebrated for his sage-like wisdom and insightful aphorisms. As Warren Buffet’s right-hand man, his approach is a testament to the power of effective decision-making and wisdom, which he famously accredits to his ‘multi-disciplinary’ approach—a rich mosaic of insights from various academic disciplines, including applied, organisational, and social psychology.

Munger’s perspective is unique and practical because he harnesses these theories and translates them into real-world applications. His approach forms an interesting amalgamation, merging business acumen with psychological theories—a powerful combination that leads to meaningful, insightful, and profitable decisions.

The power of incentives: An intersection of economics and psychology

Munger emphasises the importance of incentives, an intersection of economics and psychology, in shaping human behaviour. “Show me the incentive, and I will show you the outcome,” he famously said. In applied psychology, the operant conditioning theory by B.F. Skinner aligns with Munger’s philosophy. It suggests that behaviour is learned and maintained through immediate consequences or rewards. In organisations, this theory’s implications are vast. By understanding the impact of incentives—be it financial, social, or psychological—leaders can drive behaviour that aligns with the company’s strategic objectives.

Cognitive biases and decision making: A Mungerian perspective

In his famed address to Harvard University in 1995, Munger laid out 25 standard causes of human misjudgement—a compendium of cognitive biases that he believes significantly impacts decision-making. These biases are psychological tendencies that can cloud our judgment and influence our decision-making processes. They include confirmation bias (favouring information that confirms our pre-existing beliefs), social proof (the tendency to see an action as more appropriate when others are doing it), and availability bias (relying on immediate examples that come to mind when evaluating a specific topic or decision), among others.

In addition, Munger also discussed biases such as over-optimism, anchoring, and the contrast effect, highlighting how these can distort our understanding of reality and lead to erroneous decisions.

In the field of organisational psychology, these cognitive biases are recognised as significant barriers to rational decision-making. They create an environment susceptible to phenomena such as groupthink, where a desire for harmony or conformity in the group results in an irrational or dysfunctional decision-making outcome. These biases can also engender substantial resistance to change, as individuals often favour the familiar and view potential changes with a degree of scepticism and fear.

To mitigate the effects of these cognitive biases, Munger emphasised the importance of cultivating cognitive flexibility and self-awareness in our thinking patterns. Cognitive flexibility involves shifting our thinking and using different thinking strategies in different scenarios. On the other hand, self-awareness is the conscious knowledge of one’s character, feelings, motives, and desires. By being aware of our biases, we can better question our initial judgments and decisions and consider alternatives.

Munger also advocates for the idea of using mental models, drawing from a variety of disciplines, to aid in decision-making. This multidisciplinary approach to thinking helps counteract the narrow-mindedness that can result from over-reliance on a single perspective and encourages a more comprehensive understanding of problems, ultimately leading to better decision-making.

Harnessing social influence: Understanding the psychology of persuasion

Munger often references Robert Cialdini’s principles of persuasion—reciprocity, commitment and consistency, social proof, authority, liking, and scarcity. He asserts that these principles don’t just operate on an individual level but can significantly influence organisational culture and drive business outcomes.

For instance, the principle of commitment and consistency can improve organisational efficiency. When employees commit to a task or goal, they are more likely to follow through. Similarly, the principle of social proof plays a role in shaping corporate cultures. People tend to conform to the behaviours of the majority, which can either drive productive work ethics or create a toxic environment.

Navigating the latticework of mental models

Munger advocates for the latticework of mental models, suggesting that one must understand various disciplines to make effective decisions. This is where the role of interdisciplinary knowledge, specifically a blend of applied, organisational, and social psychology, becomes paramount.

One of the key insights of this approach is the understanding that organisations are not just economic entities but psychological and social entities as well. Leaders who appreciate this complexity are more equipped to drive their organisations towards sustainable success.

Conclusion: The intersection of wisdom and psychology

Munger’s wisdom, grounded in various psychological theories, provides a robust framework for understanding and influencing human behaviour in organisations. By weaving together insights from applied, organisational, and social psychology, he teaches us that wisdom is not just about knowledge but also about understanding human nature and leveraging it for collective progress. His philosophies echo the timeless essence of these psychological theories, reminding us that at the heart of every organisation, the human element counts the most.


Clusters, as conceptualised by Michael Porter (1990), have been central in economic theory. Geographically concentrated interconnected companies within similar industries have spurred economic growth and driven innovation. Silicon Valley’s technology hub, Wall Street’s finance focus, and Milan’s fashion hotspot are just a few instances of this clustering phenomenon.

Although economic and geographical clustering offers intriguing insights, I’m particularly interested in applying this concept to the microcosm of individual organisations – their teams. Could the “cluster” effect potentially apply to the human aspects of businesses?

What is a team cluster?

Based on principles of organisational psychology, a “team cluster” is a group of people with unique strengths who work together to create an environment that fosters innovation and high performance, according to Sundstrom et al. (2000). This approach differs from the traditional “superstar” model, which relies on one exceptionally talented individual to drive success. Instead, it suggests that a team made up of consistently above-average members is more likely to achieve optimal performance.

The way a team works together is very important in this model (Forsyth, 2018). Adding a superstar could upset the balance of the team and cause conflicts or hard feelings. However, a team that is well-balanced will work well together and have better relationships, leading to better performance. The Galáctico project in Real Madrid which was cancelled in 2007, is an example of this (although there is a new one in development by all accounts).  

The power of a strong team can be seen in historical examples, such as Walt Disney Studios’ ‘Nine Old Men’, a group of animators who worked together to create beloved films like ‘Snow White and the Seven Dwarfs’ and ‘Bambi’. This shows how a team with a balance of talent can be more effective than relying on one exceptional individual.

Social loafing

According to a theory called social loafing (Latane et al., 1979), people often put in less effort when they are part of a group, especially if they think that someone else in the group is responsible for most of the success. However, having a well-balanced team ensures that every member’s input is valuable, which decreases the chances of social loafing and leads to better overall performance.

The ground-breaking development of penicillin by Howard Florey, Ernst Boris Chain, and their colleagues at Oxford University exemplifies the power of such a team cluster (Ligon, 2004). Each individual played a vital role in the process, validating the potency of a balanced, collective effort in accomplishing a shared goal.

Training and collaboration

Developing the skills and relationships of team members can strengthen the effectiveness of team clusters. This involves training and development to promote shared understanding, mutual respect, and collaboration within the team, as stated by Salas et al. in 2008. A prime example of this is the COVID-19 vaccine development teams, like the one behind the Pfizer-BioNTech vaccine, who utilised their diverse skills and knowledge to successfully develop a vaccine through collective effort and collaboration.

Team cluster dynamics

The success of the ENIAC team in history underscores the significance of diversity and equality in teams. The “ENIAC Girls,” a group of six female mathematicians who were among the earliest computer programmers, played a crucial role in the creation of ENIAC, one of the earliest general-purpose computers. This demonstrates the value of utilising various skills and viewpoints, as well as the power of inclusiveness in optimising team performance.

The concept of the team cluster model can be applied in different fields, including sports. However, the dynamics may differ due to the unique nature of athletic performance. Nevertheless, the idea remains valid that a team with a good balance of contributions from each member often performs better than a team focused on one superstar, as proven by Fransen et al. in 2015.

Leadership’s role in team clusters

Creating effective team clusters requires intentional development and management. Encouraging self-development and peer-to-peer learning can raise the team’s overall competency level (Decuyper et al., 2010). Additionally, it’s important to nurture an environment where team members feel valued and understand their contribution to the overall goal. Leadership plays a crucial role in creating a culture that values collaboration, continuous learning, and collective success over individual brilliance.


In conclusion, team clusters are effective because they bring together a diverse range of skills, encourage collaboration, and promote continuous learning and development. By combining these elements, organisations can use team clusters to improve innovation and performance. In short, the team cluster model shows that working together can achieve more than working alone.


Decuyper, S., Dochy, F., & Van den Bossche, P. (2010). Grasping the dynamic complexity of team learning: An integrative model for effective team learning in organisations. Educational Research Review, 5(2), 111-133.

Fransen, K., Vanbeselaere, N., De Cuyper, B., Vande Broek, G., & Boen, F. (2015). The myth of the team captain as principal leader: extending the athlete leadership classification within sport teams. Journal of sports sciences, 33(14), 1377-1387.

Forsyth, D. R. (2018). Group Dynamics. Cengage Learning.

Latane, B., Williams, K., & Harkins, S. (1979). Many Hands Make Light the Work: The Causes and Consequences of Social Loafing. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 37(6), 822-832.

Ligon, B. L. (2004). Penicillin: Its Discovery and Early Development. Seminars in Pediatric Infectious Diseases, 15(1), 52-57.

Porter, M. E. (1990). The Competitive Advantage of Nations. Free Press.

Salas, E., Cooke, N. J., & Rosen, M. A. (2008). On teams, teamwork, and team performance: discoveries and developments. Human Factors, 50(3), 540-547.

Sundstrom, E., McIntyre, M., Halfhill, T., & Richards, H. (2000). Work Groups: From the Hawthorne Studies to Work Teams of the 1990s and Beyond. Group Dynamics: Theory, Research, and Practice, 4(1), 44-67.


In any organisation, the vitality and productivity of its workforce is crucial. Gauging this contribution through performance assessments can act as a stimulus for growth or can become an obstacle when subject to biases. A noteworthy bias often overshadowing the review process is recency bias, tending to replace objective judgement with the impact of recent happenings. This piece delves into the depth of recency bias within the context of performance evaluations, its implications, and the ways to mitigate its influence. Our investigation draws on a wealth of insights from organisational psychology research and successful industry practices.

What is Recency bias?

Performance assessments are not merely a corporate ritual. They serve as strategic instruments to measure employee performance, provide meaningful feedback, set targets, and determine crucial outcomes such as promotions and compensation changes. However, these evaluations can be subjective and susceptible to cognitive biases. The issue of recency bias, where the most recent events or behaviour unduly influence the evaluation, often overlooks a consistent history of performance.

The principle of recency bias suggests that an individual’s latest actions or achievements disproportionately sway evaluators, sometimes casting a shadow over the individual’s past endeavours. This cognitive bias can distort assessments, potentially obstructing both personal development and organisational progress. Research within the field of organisational psychology underscores the significance of recency bias in performance evaluations. Studies indicate that individuals tend to give greater weight to fresh information when forming impressions (Todorov & Uleman, 2002).

This bias can twist evaluations, leading to sub-optimal decisions and employee dissatisfaction. Thus, recognising and combating this bias is crucial for fair and accurate evaluations. In the business world, several companies have identified the potential downside of recency bias in performance evaluations and devised strategies to curb its impact:

Strategies to reduce recency bias

Google, for instance, cultivates a culture of continuous feedback. This involves real-time performance evaluations, ongoing coaching, and constructive criticism, effectively reducing the effect of recency bias on annual reviews. This continuous feedback approach promotes a focus on long-term development rather than recent incidents.

Adobe adopted the “Check-in Model”, a system that encourages regular discussions between managers and employees about progress, difficulties, and goals. By taking into account a wider timeframe for evaluations, this method lessens the influence of recency bias. Deloitte implemented a similar approach with their “Performance Snapshot” system, providing employees with continuous feedback and conducting frequent performance evaluations. This broader information base minimises the impact of recency bias, allowing a more comprehensive and accurate assessment.

Though the above examples offer valuable insights, there are further strategies to help reduce the impact of recency bias in assessments:


Performance evaluations are key to the success of any organisation, but the presence of recency bias can threaten their effectiveness. By understanding the sway of recency bias and taking proactive steps to mitigate its impact, we can foster a culture of fairness and objectivity that ultimately benefits both individuals and organisations.


Todorov, A., & Uleman, J. S. (2002). Spontaneous trait inferences are bound to actors’ faces: Evidence from a false recognition paradigm. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 83(5), 1051-1065.

As the sun sets behind the opulent stadiums, top-level athletes and their agents are huddled in boardrooms, fiercely negotiating their futures. The stakes are high, and the pressure is palpable. But negotiating a job offer isn’t a skill reserved solely for sports stars; it’s just as crucial for C-level and D-level executives (Curhan, Elfenbein, & Eisenkraft, 2010). So, how can you, as a top-tier executive, ensure that you secure the best possible offer without alienating your potential employer? Let’s explore some practical rules, drawing upon organisational psychology and empirical negotiation strategy, to help you navigate the labyrinth of job offer negotiation.

1) Embrace the Power of Likeability

In the cutthroat world of business, it’s easy to forget the importance of likeability. Sports agents and athletes recognise that maintaining good club relationships is paramount to securing favourable deals (Deephouse, 1999). As an executive, striking a balance between being persistent and being likeable is crucial. Be firm with your demands and sensitive to your approach’s perception. Show empathy and understanding, and you’ll be more likely to forge a strong connection with your potential employer.

2) Focus on Your Market Value

Before entering negotiations, clearly understand your market value (Pruitt, 1981). Research industry benchmarks and consider your skills, experiences, and achievements. Having a solid grasp of your worth will enable you to negotiate confidently and realistically.

3) Establish Your Reasons for Negotiating

Be clear about your motivations for negotiating. Is it about the salary, benefits, or working conditions? By identifying your reasons, you can develop a strategy that addresses your concerns while also demonstrating how meeting your demands will benefit the organisation (Thompson, 1990).

4) Assess Your Bargaining Position

Understanding your industry’s supply and demand dynamics is essential for successful negotiation (Malhotra & Bazerman, 2007). If your skills are in high demand, you’ll have more leverage to negotiate favourable terms. Conversely, if the market is saturated, you may need to adopt a more cautious approach.

5) Know When to Walk Away

Sometimes, negotiations may not yield the desired outcome. Recognise when it’s time to walk away from an offer that doesn’t align with your values or meet your expectations. By knowing your limits, you’ll avoid accepting a subpar deal out of desperation (Fisher & Ury, 1981).

6) Conduct Yourself Professionally and Politely

Throughout the negotiation process, maintain a professional and courteous demeanour. Avoid aggressive tactics or making ultimatums, as these can damage your reputation and harm your chances of securing a favourable outcome (Shell, 2006).

In conclusion, mastering the art of job offer negotiation is essential for top executives looking to secure the best possible deal. By being likeable, focusing on your market value, establishing your reasons for negotiating, assessing your bargaining position, knowing when to walk away, and conducting yourself professionally, you’ll set yourself up for success. Remember, the path to the perfect job offer is paved with empathy, strategy, and perseverance. As organisational psychologist Adam Grant would put it, it’s not about winning or losing; it’s about creating value for both parties (Grant, 2013).


Curhan, J. R., Elfenbein, H. A., & Eisenkraft, N. (2010). The objective value of subjective value: A multi-round negotiation study. Journal of Applied Social Psychology, 40(3), 690-709.

Deephouse, D. L. (1999). To be different, or to be the same? It’s a question (and a trade-off) that organizations face all the time. Research in organizational behavior and human decision processes, 80(3), 212-238.

Fisher, R., & Ury, W. (1981). Getting to yes: Negotiating agreement without giving in. New York, NY: Penguin Books.

Galen, M. (2013). Negotiating your next job. Forbes. Retrieved from

Grant, A. (2013). Give and take: A revolutionary approach to success. New York, NY: Penguin Books.

Malhotra, D., & Bazerman, M. H. (2007). Negotiation genius: How to overcome obstacles and achieve brilliant results at the bargaining table and beyond. New York, NY: Bantam Books.

Pruitt, D. G. (1981). Negotiation behaviour. New York, NY: Academic Press.

Shell, G. R. (2006). Bargaining for Advantage: Negotiation strategies for reasonable people. New York, NY: Penguin Books.

Thompson, L. (1990). Negotiation behaviour and outcomes: Empirical evidence and theoretical issues. Psychological Bulletin, 108(3), 515-532.